The IUCN Global Ecosystem Typology v1.01: Descriptive profiles for Biomes and Ecosystem Functional Groups

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Please note that there is an updated version of the IUCN Global Ecosystem Typology descriptive profiles, which may be found here: This document contains version 1.01 of the IUCN Global Ecosystem Typology. The new typology comprises six hierarchical levels to support applications across global to local scales. The typology is based on an explicit theoretical framework with contributions from an extensive global network of ecosystem experts. It differs from the IUCN Habitats Classification Scheme, designed to characterize habitats of individual species rather than ecosystem processes. Version 1.0 includes a set of systematic profiles describing the key ecological traits, functional processes and global distribution of biomes and ecosystem functional groups throughout the biosphere. The typology applies the same classificatory framework and underlying model to ecosystems across marine, freshwater, terrestrial and subterranean environments.
Keith, D. et al.
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